Magnesium Biomarker Beta Test on Ironman Triathletes

Magnesium Biomarker Beta Test on Ironman Triathletes

White Paper: Magnesium Tolerability and Absorption

Recent studies show endurance athletes require 20-30% more magnesium for optimal performance.(1) Magnesium is critical to the human body at a cellular level and reaches over 300 enzymatic processes, with recent studies bumping these numbers to potentially double the amount once thought.

Magnesium acts as a catalyst and precursor, building the bridge for energy production, muscle function, cardiovascular regulation, neuromuscular capabilities, and hormone regulation and generation.

The factors causing a greater need for magnesium uptake in the endurance athlete, vary from the following:

  • increased ATP energy requirements
  • loss due to sweat and urine

  • glucose utilization

  • muscle breakdown
  • adrenal stress

In recent magnesium clinical evaluations there is increasing evidence of a 70-80% magnesium deficiency in society. The existing factors associated with this decline are numerous, however they start with the soil and plant nutrient levels. Our Agriculture practices, fertilization methods and crop rotations are not as replenishing as they were 30 years ago. The use of inorganic chemical fertilizer comprised of Nitrogen, Potassium & Phosphorous insufficiently replenishes crops to acceptable nutritional levels.

Consequently, with limited soil nutrient replenishment, lack of crop rotations, early harvesting for global transportation, produce nutrient density has dropped as much as 30% in some areas over the years.

This overall perspective of mineral deficiency in our agriculture has us focus on the implications of one mineral in particular, magnesium.

Current Magnesium levels have been in questions due to the initial studies conducted and resulting established RDI’s. (2)The original studies conducted to provide a basis for Magnesium RDI values were less the accurate for a variety of reasons (3).

In addition to the questioned current RDI levels, the studies were based on ‘blood serum test’ levels, which as we know, are not accurate indications of intercellular and total Magnesium levels. This is more alarming as the current testing methods do not provide an accurate picture of what is happening in the body.

Blood serum levels represent approximately 1-3% of total Magnesium levels in the body. Most Magnesium is stored and found in the skeletal and muscular areas of the body. It is driven to the blood serum with initial intestinal absorption transportation and homeostasis ‘dumping’.

Dumping is a term relating to the process by which nutrients shift to areas within the body where there are deficiencies or lower levels that are required to maintain optimal cellular functioning.

Magnesium ‘dumping’ is due to Magnesium deficiencies and the bodies regulatory mechanisms driving Magnesium from sufficient stores (muscles and skeletal), to areas of the body based on demand and need.

Currently Magnesium deficiency has been associated with:

  • Cardiovascular issues: atrial fibrillation • Metabolic syndrome
• Diabetes
• Fibromyalgia
  • Hypokalemia
• Lower testosterone levels

Secondary symptoms of magnesium deficiency include:

  • asthma- restricted breathing issues • restless leg syndrome
• muscle cramping
• muscle twitching
  • inefficient electrolyte replacement • emotional disturbance
• vasoconstriction conditions

There are various ‘FORMS’ of magnesium available on the market; Magnesium Oxide, Magnesium Carbonate, Magnesium Citrate, Magnesium Lactate, to name a few.

Numerous studies show the limited bioavailability of Magnesium Oxide in particular, followed by Mg Carbonate, Mg Lactate, Mg Citrate.

Mg Oxide is the least bioavailable and least tolerated amongst all Magnesium ‘forms’. MgO and the other aforementioned Magnesium forms cause a laxation effect, or what is known as loose stools or diarrhea.  Mg Oxide and Mg Citrate are both used for flushing the intestinal tract prior to colonoscopy procedures.

Albion Minerals has clinically studied and validated the Magnesium chelate forms of minerals to help reduce muscle leg cramps(4) and reduce muscle recovery time in athletes. (5)

MOXiLIFE LLC conducted a Mg RBC, (Magnesium Intercellular Red Blood Cell)Biomarker Beta Test with 8 Ironman triathletes over a 3 week period using Magnesium Lysinate Glycinate Chelate(TRAACS™ Albion Minerals), the same magnesium form used in HydraMag® Magnesium. This Magnesium is amino acid bonded; hence ‘activated’, to support higher intestinal absorption.

The athlete age ranged from 29-70, male and female, training 20+hours per week, with instructed daily intake of 300mg Magnesium Lysinate Glycinate Chelate.

MOXiLIFE was looking for two basic parameters;

a.) intercellular absorption

b.) tolerance

  • The average intake was between 200-300mg, with a positive biomarker movement range from .3 to .7
  • No intestinal issues were reported, and compliance was monitored individually.

We conclude from this Beta test, this chelate form of Magnesium is highly tolerable and highly absorbed for endurance athletes training and competing at elevated levels.

The form of Magnesium as a ‘chelate’ is the advised choice for deficient endurance athletes.


1.) Update on the Relationship between magnesium and Exercise: F.H. Nielsen 2006 Magnesium Research 2006; 19 (3):180-9

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4.) Oral magnesium for relief in pregnancy induced leg cramps: a randomized controlled study; Supakatisant & Phupong Maternal and Child Nutrition 2012

5.) Magnesium Supplementation Report 2009 Project Title:
An analysis of magnesium supplementation on physiological attributes in healthy, physically active subjects
Investigators: L.R. Brilla, Ph.D. Western Washington University