Magnesium Beta Test on Triathletes: White Paper

Magnesium Test Overview:

 Approximately 90% were in the low Mg RBC range to start
90% were training for an Ironman distance race
After 3 weeks of 300mg Magnesium(or 2 HydraMag® Servings) their Mg cell levels positively increased, AND symptoms associated with low Mg levels were eliminated and or significantly reduced.

Magnesium Beta Test on Triathletes: White Paper

Recent studies show endurance athletes require 20% more magnesium for optimal performance.(1) Magnesium is critical to the human body at a cellular level and reaches over 300 enzymatic processes, with recent studies bumping these numbers to potentially double the amount once thought. Magnesium acts as a catalyst and precursor, building the bridge for energy production, muscle function, cardiovascular regulation, neuromuscular capabilities, and hormone generation.

As for factors causing a greater need for magnesium in the endurance athlete, vary from the following:

  • increased energy requirements
  • loss due to sweat and urine
  • glucose utilization
  • muscle breakdown
  • adrenal stress

Secondary symptoms of magnesium deficiency include:

  • asthma- restricted breathing issues
  • restless leg syndrome
  • muscle cramping
  • muscle twitching
  • inefficient electrolyte replacement
  • emotional disturbance
  • vasoconstriction conditions

In recent magnesium clinical evaluations there is increasing evidence of a 70-80% magnesium deficiency in society. The existing factors associated with this decline are numerous, however they start with the soil and plant nutrient levels. Our fertilization methods and crop rotations are not as replenishing as they were 30 years ago. The use of inorganic chemical fertilizer comprised of Nitrogen, Potassium & Phosphorous insufficiently replenishes crops to acceptable nutritional levels.

Consequently, with limited soil nutrient replenishment, lack of crop rotations, early harvesting for global transportation, the minerals and nutrient levels have dropped significantly, as much as 30% in some areas over the years.

This overall perspective of mineral deficiency in our agriculture has us focus on the implications of one mineral in particular, magnesium.

Current Magnesium levels have been in questions due to the initial studies conducted and resulting established RDI’s. (2) The original studies conducted to provide a basis for Magnesium RDI values were less the accurate for a variety of reasons (3).

In addition to the questioned current RDI levels, the studies were based on ‘blood serum test’ levels, which as we know, are not accurate indications of intercellular and total Magnesium levels. This is more alarming as the current testing methods do not provide an accurate picture of what is happening in the body.

Blood serum levels represent approximately 1-3% of total Magnesium levels in the body. Most Magnesium is stored and found in the skeletal and muscular areas of the body. It is driven to the blood serum with initial intestinal absorption transportation and  homeostasis ‘dumping’.

Dumping is a term relating to the process by which nutrients shift to areas within the body where there are deficiencies or lower levels that are required to maintain optimal cellular functioning.

Magnesium ‘dumping’ is due to Magnesium deficiencies and the bodies regulatory mechanisms driving Magnesium from sufficient stores (muscles and skeletal) to areas of the body, based on demand and need.

Currently Magnesium deficiency has been associated with:

There are various ‘FORMS’ of magnesium available on the market, Magnesium Oxide, Magnesium carbonate, Magnesium Citrate, Magnesium Lactate, to name a few.

Numerous studies show the limited bioavailability of Magnesium Oxide in particular, followed by Mg Carbonate, Mg Lactate, Mg Citrate. MgO is the least bioavailable and least tolerated amongst all Magnesium ‘forms’. MgO and the other aforementioned Magnesium forms cause a laxation effect, or what is known as loose stools or diarrhea.

Albion Minerals has clinically studied and validated the Magnesium chelate forms of minerals to help reduce muscle leg cramps(4) and reduce muscle recovery time in athletes. (5)

MOXiLIFE LLC conducted a Mg RBC; Intercellular Magnesium, Biomarker Beta Test with 8 Ironman triathletes over a 3 week period using Magnesium Lysinate Glycinate Chelate(TRAACS Albion Minerals). The athlete age ranged from 29-70, male and female, training 20+hours per week, with instructed daily intake of 300mg Magnesium Lysine Glycerinate Chelate.

MOXiLIFE was looking for two basic parameters; intercellular absorption and tolerance.

        • The average intake was between 200-300mg, with an average positive biomarker movement of .3
        • No intestinal issues were reported, and compliance was monitored individually.

We conclude from this Beta test, this chelate form of Magnesium is highly tolerable and highly absorbed for endurance athletes training and competing at elevated levels.

The form of Magnesium as a ‘chelate’ is the advised choice for deficient endurance athletes.

Currently Magnesium deficiency has been associated with:

  • Cardiovascular issues: atrial fibrillation
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Diabetes
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Hypokalemia
  • Lower testosterone levels



1.) Update on the Relationship between magnesium and Exercise: F.H. Nielsen 2006 Magnesium Research 2006; 19 (3):180-9


2.) Update on the Relationship between magnesium and Exercise: F.H. Nielsen 2006 Magnesium Research 2006; 19 (3):180-9

3.) Update on the Relationship between magnesium and Exercise: F.H. Nielsen 2006 Magnesium Research 2006; 19 (3):180-9

4.) Oral magnesium for relief in pregnancy induced leg cramps: a randomized controlled study; Supakatisant & Phupong Maternal and Child Nutrition 2012

5.) Magnesium Supplementation Report 2009 Project Title: An analysis of magnesium supplementation on physiological attributes in healthy, physically active subjects Investigators:  L.R. Brilla, Ph.D. Western Washington University